You are going to investigate the characteristics of circuits with resistors in series and circuits with resistors in parallel. To investigate the characteristics, you are going to apply Ohm’s Law.
Requires you to create simulated circuits using the PhET Circuit Construction Kit Virtual Lab (be sure you use the HTML5 version, not the Java version).
As light travels from one medium to another, the path the light travels bends in a predictable fashion. This optical phenomena is known as refraction. The law of refraction can be used to determine the angle of refraction when the index of refraction is known for both mediums. The law of refraction is an important physical law with applications in the field of optics. The law of refraction is known as Snell’s Law, named for Willobrord Snell, who discovered the law in 1621.
To explore the law of refraction.
To apply Snell’s Law to solve problems involving refraction.
I will be discussing the use of ultrasonic nondestructive testing by the military. “Defending the national interest requires the use of sophisticated artillery, technologies and equipment. These defense systems are subject to a high degree of stress whether they are missile systems, or the jets and naval vessels that launch those systems. A flaw or weak spot caused by corrosion or wear can cause a critical component to fail and damage a serious investment. Nondestructive testing (NDT) for the military and defense industry is an indispensable part of fielding and maintaining these systems. Nondestructive testing for the military is widespread and essential. It ranges from relatively straightforward NDT such as ultrasonic testing of welds aboard naval vessels to the testing of complex aerospace components that combine metals and composite materials. In either case, the safety of the sailors, soldiers, marines, and airmen who operate these systems depends on regularly performed military NDT” (Nondestructive Testing for the Military).
According to Military Nondestructive Testing, various methods of nondestructive testing—ultrasonic, eddy current, magnetic particle, radiographic, liquid penetrant, laser testing, and leak testing—allow military personnel to inspect infrastructure, vessels, vehicles, and weapons systems for flaws, corrosion, and other defects which could lead to failure and endanger the lives of servicemen and servicewomen (Safety Precautions).
Ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) is a method used to characterize the internal volumes of materials. It works by propagating high-frequency sound waves well above the range of human hearing throughout the material. It can be used to detect flaws and discontinuities in metals, composites, and other materials. “High-frequency sounds travel through a uniform medium until they reach a discontinuity that reflects them back—such as air or fluid at the other side of the material—or incongruity in the matrix of the material. These reflected waves can be resolved into visual images that allow an ultrasonic testing technician to see flaws in the material, determine if corrosion is present, or detect corrosion eroding the thickness of the material. Ultrasonic testing works well for contiguous materials like metals, but not as well for materials where discontinuities are part of their normal makeup like wood, wood composites, or paper materials” (A Comprehensive Guide).
Some types of ultrasonic nondestructive testing are: Straight Beam, Angle Beam, Immersion Testing, Phased Array, Time of Flight Diffraction, Total Focusing Method (TFM), and Guided Waves. (Please visit https://www.zetec.com/resources/ultrasonic-testing-overview/ for a full description of how each of these testing is done.
Military and Defense Solution. Nondestructive Testing for the Military and Defense. N.D.
Military Nondestructive Testing. Safety Precautions. N.D.
Ultrasonic Testing Overview: A Comprehensive Guide to UT. N.D.
The use of ultrasound for non-medical purposes is more common that I thought. It is used for many applications not limited to aerospace, automotive, construction, manufacturing, environmental protection, purification of water, decontamination of the atmosphere and soil, and several other remediation applications. There is a study of the effects of ultrasound on materials. This is known as sonochemistry.
To find more applications it is easier to research Nondestructive Testing (ultrasonic) and you will find companies that specialize in the use of ultrasonic testing for finding the thickness and faults including corrosion in pipe. It is a non-destructive method using several methods but primarily pulse-echo through transmission from something that emits the sound wave and something to receive it (probe). This can very accurately find faults in the material in a noninvasive way. Say you have a large steam line in a factory and are unsure of the damage of oxidization that has occurred in the lines, it would be easier and maybe more cost effective to hire a company to evaluate before disassembling and planning on re-piping if unneeded. I only think of this application because I currently work in an older manufacturing plant, and we have some steam piping in use that we really have no way of knowing its density and integrity without shutting down the system and taking it apart and reassembling. We often must plan for the worse and have parts on hand and it can be unnecessary. Once again, I am finding these fields of study fascinating. I hope you all are enjoying your research!
What is Ultrasonic testing and how does it work? (2022). TWI. https://www.twi-global.com/technical-knowledge/faqs/ultrasonic-testingLinks to an external site.
Timothy J Mason. (2006, August 4). Developments in ultrasound-non-medical. NIH. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16928393/Links to an external site.
Molten salt thermal energy storage systems are used during times when energy is not needed. The liquid salt is stored as thermal energy in highly insulated tanks at a temperature of 300-500 degrees Celsius, depending on the type of salt being stored. These systems most commonly utilize sodium nitrate and/or potassium nitrate due to their non-corrosive nature.
When energy is needed, the salt is pumped into a steam generator where the hot salt boils water. The steam produced from the boiling water turns a turbine generator, which produces energy. After the salt cools, it is pumped back into the storage system where it is reheated to prepare for another use (Dodaro, 2015).
In my opinion, using molten salt as a form of alternative energy production/storage seems like a good option if we can create more plants. Right now, there are very few molten salt plants; therefore, the process does not create much energy. “The largest molten salt solar plant, located in United States, can produce 110 Megawatt of electricity. While the largest solar power plant can produce more than 2,000 Megawatt of energy, almost a third of the largest coal power plant with 6,720 Megawatt” (sataksig, 2020). Molten nitrate salt has a volumetric heat capacity of around 3,000
. That is roughly 1,000
more than similar synthetic heat transfer processes.
In addition, these salts do not pose hardly any hazard to the plant they are in or the surrounding areas. The only precaution that must be taken is to keep the salt away from open flames, sparks, or any sources of ignition as the salt will release oxygen when they break down, providing more fuel for a fire (McMullen, 2016).
Molten Salt Storage. (n.d.). Large.stanford.edu. http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2015/ph240/dodaro2/Links to an external site.
Using Molten Salts as a Heat Transfer Fluid and Thermal-Storage Medium | 2016-10-26 | Process Heating. (n.d.). Www.process-Heating.comLinks to an external site.. Retrieved September 7, 2022, from https://www.process-heating.com/articles/91918-using-molten-salts-as-a-heat-transfer-fluid-and-thermal-storage-medium#:~:text=Salts%20also%20have%20relatively%20high%20latent%20heat%20capacityLinks to an external site.
sataksig. (2020, December 1). What Is Molten Salt Power Plant? Here We Explain This Innovation. Earth Buddies. https://earthbuddies.net/molten-salt/#:~:text=The%20largest%20molten%20salt%20solar%20plant%2C%20located%20in
Silicon is the most abutment element in the earth’s crust and is molten at about 1400c where salts melt at 800c. Molten silicon thermal energy storage offer higher storage temperatures than that of salts. ‘Silicon has unique properties that confer the ability to store more than 1 MWh of energy in a cubic meter, ten times more than using salts.’ A research that has been done by MIT ‘ says that if you use two 10 meter high storage tanks of molten silicon you would be able to power 100000 households. In addition the silicon can hold up to 100 times more energy per unit than conventional solar.
ScienceDaily. (2016, October 7). Innovative molten silicon-based energy storage system. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 7, 2022, from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/10/161007100750.htmLinks to an external site.
Molten salts are used in heat transfers fluid and thermal energy storage in solar power plants. This is solar power collected through mirrors and lenses that are laid out or set up in high sun light concentrated areas. Molten salts are stored into hot storage tanks where it can be kept for several days and then when it is needed it will be turned into electricity. The salts are stored at temps around 565 c and then once they are cooled to 290c it will be moved around for further cold storage and reuse.
Ltd., U. D. M. I. P. (2022, July 11). Molten salt thermal energy storage market is likely to showcase a robust growth by 2027: CAGR: ~6%: Univdatos market insights. Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Market is likely to showcase a robust growth by 2027|CAGR: ~6%| UnivDatos Market Insights. Retrieved September 7, 2022, from https://www.prnewswire.com/in/news-releases/molten-salt-thermal-energy-storage-market-is-likely-to-showcase-a-robust-growth-by-2027-cagr-6-univdatos-market-insights-801528526.html
Review the video and please complete the table below according to the instructions given there and see attachment.
Speed of Sound Lab – YouTube
Point out how Einstein’s special and general relativity theories impact modern technology.
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In a two-page paper, identify the physics principles contained within the following scenario. Explain how these principals connect to Einstein’s theory of relativity or in modern applications in physics. If you use a GPS option on your car or a mobile device, you are using Einstein’s theory of relativity. Finally, provide another example from your own experience, then compare and contrast your scenario to the provided example below.
Mandy took a trip to Rome, Italy. She gazed out over the open ocean 20,000 feet below as her airplane began its descent to her final destination of Rome. It had been a long flight from New York to Rome, but as she stretched, and her bones creaked as though she was old, she knew that in fact, she was a tiny bit younger than her compatriots back home, thanks to traveling at hundreds of miles per hour. In fact, time for her was running slowly compared to her friends in New York for two reasons: the speed at which she had traveled and the height of the airplane above the Earth. Neither, though, were noticeable.
You are spending a weekend onboard the International Space Station and you’ve been asked to produce a video of a weightlessness demonstration. However, are you truly weightless? Prepare a response to this question in terms of mass, acceleration to gravity, and weight. Feel free to embellish your account of values but you will need to look up the accelerations due to gravity on Earth (surface) to support your account.
We are not ever truly weightless that sensation is the result of falling. Weight is the force of gravity exerted on an object. Mass is the measure of how much an object can resist velocity. Acceleration to gravity is the value assigned to an object that is free-falling towards earth. If you were to jump out of a plane and free fall that would create the feeling of weightless. Riding rollercoasters can give the feeling of weightlessness when it goes straight down that is part of the thrill. When in an elevator and it goes it gives the feeling of weightlessness even though the elevator still has the same weight as it goes up.
The acceleration of gravity. The Physics Classroom. (n.d.). Retrieved September 1, 2022, from https://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/1DKin/Lesson-5/Acceleration-of-Gravity
Admin. (2022, May 31). Weightlessness – explanation, Elevator Experiment, faqs. BYJUS. Retrieved September 1, 2022, from https://byjus.com/physics/weightlessness/#:~:text=Weightlessness%20is%20a%20sensation%20experienced,the%20state%20of%20free%20fall.
Cain, F. (2015, February 17). Are astronauts really weightless? Phys.org. Retrieved September 1, 2022, from https://phys.org/news/2015-02-astronauts-weightless.html
You will do some research to determine how these devices are different but still use similar optical concepts to do different tasks. Microscopes use light and radiation to examine very small objects. Some devices are known an Electron Microscopes can be used to see extremely small objects. What are some applications of different types of microscopes? What are the different technologies they use?
Your eyes and cameras work on the same principle. The lens in your eye focuses an image of what you are looking at, on your retina. In a camera, the image is projected on film or an imaging device from which a picture is made. An X-Ray machine is also a camera even though it does not use lenses, it still uses optical concepts to form images.
A small conventional telescope also uses a lens to focus images of objects that are some distance away. The image is not projected onto your eye or a light-sensitive surface but is projected as a virtual object to be magnified by another lens or eyepiece to produce the image you see when you look through the telescope.
A microscope forms an image close to the object. Because the image is further from the lens than the object, it is magnified. The microscope eyepiece forms an enlarged image of the already magnified image with which you can view very small objects.
Before you begin, be sure to review the following resources: