Categories
Criminology

List and contrast the four basic philosophical reasons for sentencing/punishment

List and contrast the four basic philosophical reasons for sentencing/punishment criminalsAnswer Questions in essay, paragraph form, in your own words. Do not cut and paste information.Use quotes, cite your work, referencesI need to see your quotes in quotes “”. I need to see the work your quoting, in quotes, with where it came from.

Categories
Criminology

Application Essay: What Does Justice Look Like? Assignment Instructions Overview

Application Essay: What Does Justice Look Like? Assignment Instructions
Overview
The application essay assignments address topics integral to the criminal justice field and future criminal justice professionals from a biblical worldview. As societal change compels criminal justice reform, studying the effects of reform related to justice from a biblical worldview is essential. Rethinking law enforcement procedures, criminal sentencing, and law, overall, are just a few of the topics examined.
Instructions
Council of Economic Advisers Issue Brief. (2015, December). FINES, FEES, AND BAIL. Retrieved from https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/page/files/1215_cea_fine_fee_bail_issue_brief.pdf.
Dobbie, W., Goldin, J., & Yang, C. (2016). The Effects of Pre-Trial Detention on Conviction, Future Crime, and Employment: Evidence from Randomly Assigned Judges. doi:10.3386/w22511
In May of this year, a man walked into a pharmacy told the young lady behind the counter that he had a gun and robbed the store. He demanded prescription drugs from the salesclerk. Fright and shock caused the salesclerk to fall and hit her head as she complied with the robber’s orders. A concussion resulted from the head injury leading to long-term side effects: memory loss, trouble concentrating, sleep disturbances, sensitivity to light and noise, and her family has noticed personality changes. (Her medical bills are increasing, and she is unable to work.) Thus, the salesclerk’s recollection of seeing a gun, clouded by the totality of the circumstances, is uncertain.
This man (we’ll refer to him as Adam) has a wife and three children (two boys and a girl). Before Adam’s detainment, his wife held two jobs to help with rent, additional bills, plus food; now, she has to consider a third job or try to find a higher-paying position. The public school system offers a free and reduced lunch program, which is helpful, but school is problematic in other respects. The children are having difficulty connecting with the whole idea of school, i.e., teachers as authority figures and the underlying importance of learning, knowledge, and homework. Local authorities already know the eldest son by name.
Adam was arrested and held in the county jail. He has a prior criminal record consisting of drug and property offenses, all of which were nonthreatening to the community. Court fees associated with these prior offenses, along with accrued interest charges (due to lack of ability to pay the fees), have increased his debt. Moreover, the suspension of his driver’s license was also a result of the nonpayment of his court-related debts. Not being able to drive together with having a criminal record has decreased employment opportunities as well as his ability to pay his debts. “Unsustainable debt coupled with the threat of incarceration may even encourage some formerly incarcerated individuals to return to criminal activity to pay off their debts, perversely increasing recidivism” (Council of Economic Advisers, 2015).
Now before a judge, Adam, the defendant, claims that he does not own a gun (even though he made threats of having one to the salesclerk). Knowing the defendant from prior arrests, the fact that he has a family, and being informed of the overcrowded conditions of the jail, the judge decides to grant Adam bail set to the amount of $25,000. Not able to pay this bail or a bail bonds agency fee, Adam remains in pretrial detention. (Pretrial detention may adversely affect this defendant; it may lead to a conviction, additional crime, and unemployment (Dobbie, et al., 2016)). Two of Adam’s cellmates, charged with similar robbery offenses, were able to afford bail and were released.
In this scenario, Adam is symbolic of a broken world. Humans were created to be the image-bearers of God walking the earth, mere humans who were given dominion over the things of the earth (Psalm 8) but rejected their vocation. Life is now complicated. Jesus, the son of man, the new Adam, shows humanity what it is to be fully human. Humanity was meant to be like Jesus. Because of Jesus’ death and resurrection, this is taking place now, but it not yet fully here. There is a chain of groaning taking place: all of creation is groaning, humanity is groaning due to the brokenness of this world (disease, violence, death), and God’s Spirit is groaning in intercession for this new creation (Romans 8:21-23). This groaning is evident in the suffering going on in this scenario.
For this assignment, you are to consider this situation from the viewpoints of two of the parties involved. Respond to the following questions from each party’s view.
First, CHOOSE ONE group of individuals (no modifications of sets are permitted). Your choices are:
Group A: Prosecutor/Adam’s eldest son; or
Group B: Defense Attorney (Court-Appointed Lawyer)/Salesclerk (Victim); or
Group C: Judge/Defendant (Adam)
Spend some time thinking about each party first. Watch the presentations associated with this assignment (located in Learn). Consider what is happening in their particular lives (their responsibilities, hardships, expectations, aspirations, and more). Be attentive to the many underlying issues presented in this scenario that may have an unintended effect on the people involved.
After reflecting on your two individuals, discuss how you think each would understand this situation. For each party to believe that justice was accomplished in this situation, what would need to happen (what would justice look like to this person)? How would each party want this situation resolved?
Second, let’s say that it is possible for your two parties to get together to discuss a plan for justice in this situation in which they would both agree. What would they determine?
Your 400-word minimum/500-word essay supports your views on this week’s required readings and study materials, demonstrating course-related knowledge. You must support your work with at least 3 scholarly citations in the APA format. Specifically, 1 citation will refer to the course materials, 1 citation will refer to the Bible, and the third may refer to a scholarly article published within the last five years. (Exclude assignment questions, title page, and reference section from the word count.)
Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.

Categories
Criminology

Application Essay: What Does Justice Look Like? Assignment Instructions Overview

Application Essay: What Does Justice Look Like? Assignment Instructions
Overview
The application essay assignments address topics integral to the criminal justice field and future criminal justice professionals from a biblical worldview. As societal change compels criminal justice reform, studying the effects of reform related to justice from a biblical worldview is essential. Rethinking law enforcement procedures, criminal sentencing, and law, overall, are just a few of the topics examined.
Instructions
Council of Economic Advisers Issue Brief. (2015, December). FINES, FEES, AND BAIL. Retrieved from https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/page/files/1215_cea_fine_fee_bail_issue_brief.pdf.
Dobbie, W., Goldin, J., & Yang, C. (2016). The Effects of Pre-Trial Detention on Conviction, Future Crime, and Employment: Evidence from Randomly Assigned Judges. doi:10.3386/w22511
In May of this year, a man walked into a pharmacy told the young lady behind the counter that he had a gun and robbed the store. He demanded prescription drugs from the salesclerk. Fright and shock caused the salesclerk to fall and hit her head as she complied with the robber’s orders. A concussion resulted from the head injury leading to long-term side effects: memory loss, trouble concentrating, sleep disturbances, sensitivity to light and noise, and her family has noticed personality changes. (Her medical bills are increasing, and she is unable to work.) Thus, the salesclerk’s recollection of seeing a gun, clouded by the totality of the circumstances, is uncertain.
This man (we’ll refer to him as Adam) has a wife and three children (two boys and a girl). Before Adam’s detainment, his wife held two jobs to help with rent, additional bills, plus food; now, she has to consider a third job or try to find a higher-paying position. The public school system offers a free and reduced lunch program, which is helpful, but school is problematic in other respects. The children are having difficulty connecting with the whole idea of school, i.e., teachers as authority figures and the underlying importance of learning, knowledge, and homework. Local authorities already know the eldest son by name.
Adam was arrested and held in the county jail. He has a prior criminal record consisting of drug and property offenses, all of which were nonthreatening to the community. Court fees associated with these prior offenses, along with accrued interest charges (due to lack of ability to pay the fees), have increased his debt. Moreover, the suspension of his driver’s license was also a result of the nonpayment of his court-related debts. Not being able to drive together with having a criminal record has decreased employment opportunities as well as his ability to pay his debts. “Unsustainable debt coupled with the threat of incarceration may even encourage some formerly incarcerated individuals to return to criminal activity to pay off their debts, perversely increasing recidivism” (Council of Economic Advisers, 2015).
Now before a judge, Adam, the defendant, claims that he does not own a gun (even though he made threats of having one to the salesclerk). Knowing the defendant from prior arrests, the fact that he has a family, and being informed of the overcrowded conditions of the jail, the judge decides to grant Adam bail set to the amount of $25,000. Not able to pay this bail or a bail bonds agency fee, Adam remains in pretrial detention. (Pretrial detention may adversely affect this defendant; it may lead to a conviction, additional crime, and unemployment (Dobbie, et al., 2016)). Two of Adam’s cellmates, charged with similar robbery offenses, were able to afford bail and were released.
In this scenario, Adam is symbolic of a broken world. Humans were created to be the image-bearers of God walking the earth, mere humans who were given dominion over the things of the earth (Psalm 8) but rejected their vocation. Life is now complicated. Jesus, the son of man, the new Adam, shows humanity what it is to be fully human. Humanity was meant to be like Jesus. Because of Jesus’ death and resurrection, this is taking place now, but it not yet fully here. There is a chain of groaning taking place: all of creation is groaning, humanity is groaning due to the brokenness of this world (disease, violence, death), and God’s Spirit is groaning in intercession for this new creation (Romans 8:21-23). This groaning is evident in the suffering going on in this scenario.
For this assignment, you are to consider this situation from the viewpoints of two of the parties involved. Respond to the following questions from each party’s view.
First, CHOOSE ONE group of individuals (no modifications of sets are permitted). Your choices are:
Group A: Prosecutor/Adam’s eldest son; or
Group B: Defense Attorney (Court-Appointed Lawyer)/Salesclerk (Victim); or
Group C: Judge/Defendant (Adam)
Spend some time thinking about each party first. Watch the presentations associated with this assignment (located in Learn). Consider what is happening in their particular lives (their responsibilities, hardships, expectations, aspirations, and more). Be attentive to the many underlying issues presented in this scenario that may have an unintended effect on the people involved.
After reflecting on your two individuals, discuss how you think each would understand this situation. For each party to believe that justice was accomplished in this situation, what would need to happen (what would justice look like to this person)? How would each party want this situation resolved?
Second, let’s say that it is possible for your two parties to get together to discuss a plan for justice in this situation in which they would both agree. What would they determine?
Your 400-word minimum/500-word essay supports your views on this week’s required readings and study materials, demonstrating course-related knowledge. You must support your work with at least 3 scholarly citations in the APA format. Specifically, 1 citation will refer to the course materials, 1 citation will refer to the Bible, and the third may refer to a scholarly article published within the last five years. (Exclude assignment questions, title page, and reference section from the word count.)
Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.

Categories
Criminology

Instructions for Infographic Assignments Directions: Imagine you must prese

Instructions for Infographic Assignments
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Directions: Imagine you must present a selected topic to someone who has little to no background in criminal justice. As such, you must create an infographic, which is a visually appealing, easy-to-read flyer that presents data accurately and ethically. This assignment will enhance your analytic, creative, and presentation skills in producing a nontraditional project that appeals to people seeking to gain information quickly. Please follow the steps below.
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1) Choose Your Topic
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a. Choose one of the following general topics:
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i. Intimate partner violence
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ii. Stalking
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iii. Sexual abuse
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iv. Sexual harassment
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v. Human trafficking
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vi. Corporate and environmental gender-based abuse
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b. You have the option to focus on more specific topics or populations within these general categories (e.g., dating abuse, child abuse, people of color, college campuses, LGBTQ+, etc.) but this is not required
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c. If you are unsure about your topic, please email me for questions to make sure the topic is a good fit for the assignment
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2) Your infographic must contain the following information:
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a. A title
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b. A definition of your topic (e.g., define intimate partner violence or define stalking)
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c. Prevalence rates on the type of victimization
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d. Information on detection and/or prevention of that type of violence and/or victimization. In other words, provide a proposed solution to the issue and/or a specific recommendation.
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e. A data visual, such as a chart or graph (properly cited) that illustrates some portion of the information provided in steps b – d. You may use an existing data visual from a reliable source, but you must cite the source in the infographic.
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f. Links to at least 2 sources for victims. These can be either general resources (such as the National Organization for Victim Assistance) or specific to the type of victimization or population (such as the National Helpline for Men Who Were Sexually Abused or Assaulted). This should not be information on how to report (e.g., call 911).
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3) You must use reputable sources when creating your infographic and cite in APA format! Reputable sources include Reputable sources include materials from class (i.e., the textbook, reports, articles), peer-reviewed journal articles, credible news outlets and non-partisan (meaning not affiliated with a political group) research resources (e.g., The World Health Organization, Pew Research Center, National Center for Victims of Crime, etc.).
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4) You may use Piktochart (or other online resource), Word, Powerpoint, or Publisher to create the infographic. It can be submitted as a .png, .jpeg, .doc, .docx, .ppt, .pptx, or .pdf in Blackboard.
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a. Visual Appeal – To achieve visual appeal, cohesive colors and fonts should be used. Font should be legible and easy to read. Do not use below 10 point font except in your footnote with references. Headings should have larger bold font. The infographic should have clearly delineated sections based on the major content areas. The flow should be easy to follow.
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5) This assignment is due by 11:59pm on Sunday, December 4th via the SafeAssign link on Blackboard.
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a. Note: I cannot provide a full week extension for tokens because it is the end of the semester, and the university has specific deadlines for reporting grades. Students who request a token will only receive a 2-day extension on this assignment.
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6) Resources:
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a. I posted examples of infographics AND a student guide to creating infographics on Blackboard.
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Grading Rubric:
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Element Point Breakdown
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Content 35 points
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Informative title
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Definition of victimization type
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Accurate prevalence rate from reliable source
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At least one data visual (properly cited)
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Source is cited in APA format
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Accurate information about detection and/or prevention
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At least 3 links for sources for victims
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Organization 10 points
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Info is organized and supports audience comprehension of the main message
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Visual Appeal 5 points
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Fonts, colors, layouts, and visual elements contribute to the infographic’s ability to convey the message
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Categories
Criminology

Why Do school shootings occur and how can they be prevented. please use referenc

Why Do school shootings occur and how can they be prevented. please use references from annotated bib and use 11 more sources. Apa format

Categories
Criminology

Why Do school shootings occur and how can they be prevented. please use referenc

Why Do school shootings occur and how can they be prevented. please use references from annotated bib and use 11 more sources. Apa format

Categories
Criminology

List the standard steps in a criminal jury trial, explainAnswer Questions in ess

List the standard steps in a criminal jury trial, explainAnswer Questions in essay, paragraph form, in your own words I need to see the work your quoting, in quotes, with where it came from.Brackets/parenthesis, Authors namecited work, references, more detailed, where you got this information.

Categories
Criminology

Find two scholarly articles that relate to your research topic. Review both arti

Find two scholarly articles that relate to your research topic. Review both articles and use an annotated bibliography format to discuss your thoughts about these articles. Copy the information from the annotated bibliography in module 4, (7 sources), and add them to these two sources. You will submit an annotated bibliography with 9 sources total. Each discussion should be a minimum of 500 words. Submit copies of each article.

Categories
Criminology

Students shall conduct specific research on Alternative Sanctions to Imprisonmen

Students shall conduct specific research on Alternative Sanctions to Imprisonment. There is an abundance of available research on this topic, but make sure your research has focus.
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The paper will be formatted and written in APA 6th Edition with a title page and reference page. All research and sources will be cited within the body of the paper with the appropriate use of in-text citations. The paper will be no less than 1500 words and have a minimum of 6 academic quality references. The grading rubric for this assignment may be viewed in the Research Paper submission link in Blackboard.
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Websites such as Wikipedia, blogs, and social networking forums (e.g.,Facebook) are not to be used. Depending on your topic, they may be good places to start. However, there is nothing authoritative about these websites and therefore should not be cited in an academic paper. Information obtained from official websites, such as state/federal governments or government agencies, is acceptable and may be used as sources sparingly. I have provided you with an APA formatted paper shell and a presentation on citing and references in your research paper assignment link.

Categories
Criminology

However, it is noted that in these murders, there were more outwardly discernable common features present, including location, timing, and victim characteristics, such as age and gender.

Instructions
Read the following case study and determine how biological, psychological, genetic and psychiatric theories would explain this individual’s behaviour. Record your ideas in your notebook.
Case Study: This subject was a White male with a highly unstable upbringing wherein his father frequently verbally and physically abused him. In elementary school, he demonstrated belligerent behavior and low self-esteem after learning that he would have to repeat the third grade. He had no history of juvenile arrests. At 16, he dropped out of high school to join the military. Though he earned his G.E.D., his service lasted only 19 months, due to an ‘‘underlying immature personality.’’ As a result, he was recommended for a general discharge, but upon reconsideration he ultimately received an honorable discharge.
His three-year marriage was stormy and included at least one incident wherein he threatened his wife by putting a shotgun to her head. The marriage ended in a bitter divorce, leaving him with an intense hatred of women. Over the next nine years, he committed armed robberies in multiple states. He served several prison sentences and probations. He was sporadically employed and frequently used illicit drugs. He was arrested once for possession of marijuana.
Starting at the age of 35, he killed eight White victims (three males and five females). Their ages ranged from eight to 55. Five of the eight were college students. These murders occurred in four separate incidents over a nine-month period. This offender also scored in the ‘‘very high’’ range on the PCL-R psychopathy measure, with a score of 36. He committed a variety of crimes including assault, rape, burglary, grand larceny, armed robbery, auto theft, and trespassing.
He led an irresponsible and nomadic lifestyle. Though some planning went into his murders, he was exceedingly impulsive. He had a shallow affect, and was extremely cunning and manipulative. He lacked the ability or desire to set or maintain long-term goals. His attempts at displaying charm were superficial, and he was in continuous need of stimulation. He told interviewers that he prowled around frequently at night, sometimes for hours at a time, and said that peering into windows was exciting to him. This voyeuristic behavior may have led to the methods he employed when he began to commit these murders, which involved breaking into victims’ homes at night.
Following the murders of his last two victims, he fled the area and survived financially by committing property crimes, including automobile thefts and burglaries. He later confessed to some of the murders, but demonstrated little convincing remorse. His limited efforts to express shame and regret were superficial and largely directed outward, indicating that his repentance was more for having been caught than for any feeling of empathy for his victims. He raped four of his female victims and mutilated their bodies through cutting, stabbing, biting, and evisceration. He attempted to remove evidence through unique means, by using household cleaning agents found in their homes. He also posed some of the female victims in ways that indicated his desire to taunt, shock, and offend those who found them. For example, he decapitated one and left her head positioned prominently in her home. Because these unusual behavioral features were repeated in some of the murders, a possibility existed for the killings to be linked to one offender. However, it is noted that in these murders, there were more outwardly discernable common features present, including location, timing, and victim characteristics, such as age and gender.
His preferred weapon was a large knife, which he felt enabled him to become a more efficient ‘‘killing machine.’’ He reported that his choice of this weapon was derived from his desire to exact revenge for the pain and suffering he had endured throughout his life at the hands of his ex-wife, his parents, and law enforcement and correctional personnel. As an example, he stated that he had suffered immensely during one period of incarceration for robbery, when the prison cell he occupied flooded frequently with raw sewage, as he put it, ‘‘ … day [in], day out for months. I went nuts. I went stir crazy … I was very angry.’’
It is noteworthy that he used this perceived maltreatment as one of the justifications for his later crimes, again failing to accept responsibility for his behavior. He believed he was successful as a killer because he could assimilate easily into society, while embracing his own unique, rage-filled view of the world, without others suspecting he could commit such crimes. He stated, ‘‘People like me are … right on the fringe of society. They blend right in just like you, like me. They’re like everybody.’’ Finally, he related that he was influenced by a ‘‘force,’’ in the form of an imaginary person, who identified specific residences for him to enter, and then instructed him to kill at those locations. It is significant that he used this invented individual as a partial explanation for his crimes, though it falls short of acceptance of responsibility for them and allowed him to dissociate himself from his actions. It is also another factor indicative of his high degree of psychopathy.
Reference
Beasley, J. (2004). Serial murder in America: Case studies of seven offenders. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 22, 395-414.